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If the code in this vignette has not been evaluated, a rendered version is available on the documentation site under ‘Articles’.

This vignette illustrates how to make gridded/raster maps of sdmTMB output (or gridded data from any source) on a base map of class sf.

First, we will download coastline data for our region. We will use a medium resolution version. For applied situations on finer scales, you may want to use scale = "large".

map_data <- rnaturalearth::ne_countries(
  scale = "medium",
  returnclass = "sf", country = "canada")
# Crop the polygon for plotting and efficiency:
# st_bbox(map_data) # find the rough coordinates
bc_coast <- suppressWarnings(suppressMessages(
    c(xmin = -134, ymin = 46, xmax = -120, ymax = 57))))

Transform our map into UTM 9 coordinates, which is the equal-area projection we fit in:

utm_zone9 <- 3156
bc_coast_proj <- sf::st_transform(bc_coast, crs = utm_zone9)

If you don’t know the crs number (3156 above), you can look it up by googling it or looking on For example,

Look at our base map:

ggplot(bc_coast_proj) + geom_sf()

Now we will fit a model and predict on a grid. The coordinates X and Y are already UTM zone 9 coordinates (in km).

d <- subset(pcod, year == 2017)
pcod_spde <- make_mesh(d, c("X", "Y"), cutoff = 30)
#> as(<dgCMatrix>, "dgTMatrix") is deprecated since Matrix 1.5-0; do as(., "TsparseMatrix") instead
m <- sdmTMB(density ~ 0 + depth_scaled + depth_scaled2,
  data = d, mesh = pcod_spde, family = tweedie(link = "log"))
#> Warning in checkMatrixPackageVersion(): Package version inconsistency detected.
#> TMB was built with Matrix version 1.5.3
#> Current Matrix version is 1.5.1
#> Please re-install 'TMB' from source using install.packages('TMB', type = 'source') or ask CRAN for a binary version of 'TMB' matching CRAN's 'Matrix' package
p <- predict(m, newdata = qcs_grid)

We can use sf::st_boundary() to help find reasonable limits on our map (output not shown):


Finally, we will combine our gridded predictions with the base map. We will multiply the X and Y columns by 1000 because we worked in UTM km for model fitting (to avoid computational issues with the scale of the range paramater):

ggplot(bc_coast_proj) + geom_sf() +
  geom_raster(data = p, aes(x = X * 1000, y = Y * 1000, fill = exp(est))) +
  xlim(230957.7, 1157991 - 300000) +
  ylim(5366427, 6353456 - 200000) +
  scale_fill_viridis_c() +
  theme_light() +
  labs(fill = "Predicted\ndensity") +
  labs(x = "Longitude", y = "Latitude")